BRANCHES OF SCIENCE
The study of science is a quest for knowledge, often as opposed to intuition, belief, etc. It is, in fact, systematized knowledge derived from observation, study and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied. There are many branches of science, each concerned with a particular field o study. In each science, measurement plays an important part. In each science, too, a study is made of the laws according to which objects react. The distinction between different branches of science is based on whether a science is pure, or theoretical, or whether it is applied, or practical.
The distribution is as follows:
Physical Sciences: – physics Kinetics Mechanics Electromagnetic Thermodynamics.
Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Electrochemistry Analytical Chemistry.
Life Sciences: – Biology Botany Zoology.
Earth Sciences: – Geology Meteorology Astronomy.
Examples of Overlapping Sciences: – Physics + chemistry = Physical Chemistry. Biology + Chemistry = Biochemistry Organic Chemistry.
Geology = Paleontology. Geology + Chemistry = Geochemistry.
Astronomy + Physics Astrophysics.
Biology + Astronomy + Physics = Astronautics.
Different branches of science are as given below:
Acoustics: The study of sound (or the science of sound).
Aerodynamics: (i) The branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air and other gases. (ii) The study of the motion and control of solid bodies like aircraft, missiles, etc., in air.
Aeronautics: The science or art of flight.
Agronomy: The study of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, including its composition, density, temperature, and chemical reactions, as recorded by sounding rockets and earth satellites.
Aerostatics: The branch of statics that gases and bodies in them.
Aetiology: The science of causation. Agro biology: The science of plant life and plant nutrition.
Agronomy: The science of soil management and the production of field crops.
Agrostology: The study of grasses.
Alchemy: The science dealing with the structure of animals, plants or human body.
Anthropology: The science that deals with the origin as well as the physical and cultural developments of mankind.
Arboriculture: Cultivation of trees and vegetables.
Archaeology: The study of antiquities.
Astrochemistry: The study of interstellar matter with a view to knowing the origin of the Universe.
Astrology: The ancient art (now mostly termed a pseudo-science) of prediction the course of human destinies with the help of indications deduced from the position and movement of the heavenly bodies.
Astronautics: The science involved in space travel. Astronomy: The study of the heavenly bodies.
Astrophysics: The branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.
Autoecoloy: The study of bacteria. Biochemistry: The study of chemical processes of living things.
Bioclimatology: The study of the effects of climate upon living organisms.
Bioinformatics: The creation and maintenance of the databases of biological information by the usage of advanced computing systems.
Biology: The study of living things, of both flora and fauna.
Biomechanics: The study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms.
Biometeorology: The study of the effects of atmospheric conditions on living organisms. Biometry: The application of mathematics to the study of living things.
Bionics: The study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the lining world and the application of this knowledge to the world of machines.
Bionomics: The study of the relation of an organism to its environments.
Bionomy: The science of the laws of life. Biophysics: The physics of vital processes (living things).
Biotechnology: The use of living organisms or other biological systems in the manufacture of drugs or other products or for environmental management.
Botany: The study of plants. Ceramics: The art and technology of making objects from clay, etc. (pottery).
Chemistry: The study of elements and their laws of combination and behavior. Chemotherapy: The treatment of disease by using chemical substances.
Chronobioloby: The study of the duration of life.
Chronology: The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.
Climatotherapy: The treatment of disease through suitable climatic environment, often, but not always, found in recognized health resorts. As climate is subject to seasonal variation, the required environment may have to be sought in different localities at different periods of the year.
Concho logy: The branch of zoology dealing with the shells of molluscs.
Cosmogony: The science of the nature of heavenly bodies.
Cosmography: The science that describes and maps the main features of the Universe. Cosmology: The science of the nature, origin and history of the Universe.
Cryobiology: The science that deals with the study of organisms, especially warm-blooded animals, at low temperature. The principal erect of cold on living tissues is destruction of life or preservation of it at a reduced level of activity.
Cryogenics: The science dealing the production, control and application of very low temperatures.
Cryotherapy: Use of cold, but not freezing cold, as a form of treatment. Hypothermia may be deliberately induced during surgery, for instance, to decrease a patient’s oxygen requirement.
Cryptography: The study of cyphers or codes (secret writings).
Crystallography: The study of the structure, forms and properties of crystals.
Cytochemistry: The branch of cytology dealing with the chemistry of cells.
Cytogenetic: The branch of biology dealing with the study of heredity from the point of view of cytology and genetics.
Cytology: The study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions. Dactylography: The study of fingerprints for the purpose of identification.
Dermatology: The study of skin and skin disease.
Ecology: The study of the relation of animals and plants to their surroundings, animate and inanimate.
Electronics: The study of the development, behavior and applications of electronic devices and circuits.
Electrostatics: The study of static electricity. Embryology: The study of development of embryos.
Entomology: The study of insects.
Epidemiology: The branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.
Ethnography: A branch of anthropology: A branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures.
Ethnology: A branch of anthropology that deals with the origin, distribution and distinguishing characteristics of the races of mankind.
Ethnology: The study of animal behavior,
Eugenics: The study of the production of better offspring by the careful selection of parents. Fractography: The study of fractures in metal surfaces.
Genealogy: The study of family origins and history. It includes the compilation of ancestors and arranging them in pedigree charts.
Genecology: The study of genetically coplostion of plant population in relation to their habitats.
Genesiology: The science of generation. Genetics: The branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.
Geobotany: The branch of botany dealing with all aspects of relations between plants and the earth’s surface.
Geochemistry: The study of the chemical composition of the earth’s crust and the changes which take place within it.
Geodesy: Methods of surveying the earth for making maps and correlating geological, gravitational and magnetic measurements. It is a branch of geo-physics.
Geography: The development of science of the earth’s surface, physical features, climate, population, etc. Geology: The science that deals with the physical history of the earth. Geomedicine: The branch of medicine dealing with the influence of climate and environmental conditions on health.
Geomorphology: The study of the characteristics, origin and development of land forms. Geophysics: The physics of the earth.
Gerontology: The study of old age, its phenomena, disease, etc. Glaciology: The study of ice and the action of ice in all its forms.
Gynaecology: The study of diseases of women’s reproductive organs.
Histology: The study of tissues.
Horticulture: The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants. Hydrodynamics: The mathematical study of the forces, energy and pressure of liquid in motion,
Hydrography: The science of water measurements of the earth with special reference to their use for navigation.
Hydrology: The study of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Hydrometallurgy: The process of extracting metals at ordinary temperature by bleaching ore with liquids. Hydrometeorology: The study of the occurrence, movement and changes in the state of water in the atmosphere.
Hydropathy: The treatment of disease by the internal and external use of water. Hydroponics: The cultivation of plants by placing the roots in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil.
Hydrostatics: The mathematical study of forces and pressures in liquids.
Hygiene: The science of health and its preservation. Limnology: The study of lakes. Lithology: A systematic study of rocks.
Mammography: Radiography of the mammary glands.
Metallography: The study of the crystalline structures of metals and alloys.
Metallurgy: The process of extracting metals from this ores.
Meteorology: The science of the atmosphere and its phenomena.
Metrology: The scientific study of weights and measures.
Microbiology: The study of minute living organisms including bacteria, moulds and pathogenic protozoa.
Molecular biology: The study of the structure of the molecules which are of importance in biology.
Morphology: The science of organic forms and structures. Mycology: The study of fungi and fungus diseases.
Nanotechnology: The technology that is based on the scale of nanometers (10-9m). Neurology: The study of the nervous system, its functions and disorders.
Neuropathology: The study of diseases of the nervous system.
Nosology: The branch of medicine that deals with the classification of diseases. Numerology: The study of numbers, the study of the date and tear of one’s birth and their influence on one’s future life.
Odontology: The scientific study of the teeth. Optics: The study of nature and properties of light. Ornithology: The study of birds.
Orthopaedics: The branch of surgery that deals with the deformities and diseases of bones and joints, especially in children. Osteopathy: A therapeutic system based upon detecting and correcting faulty structure in bones and muscles.
Otology: The study of the ear and its diseases.
Otorhinolaryngology: The study of diseases of ear, nose and throat. Pale botany: The study of fossil plants.
Paleontology: The study of fossils. Pathology: Branch of medicine that studies the causes and nature of diseases, especially the structural and functional changes brought about by disease.
Pharyngology: The science of the pharynx (the cavity at the back of the mouth where the passages to the nose, lungs and stomach begin) and its diseases.
Phonology: The study of periodicity phenomena of plants. Philology: The study of written records, their authenticity, etc.
Phonetics: The study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, reception, etc. Photobiology: The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms. Phrenology: The study of the faculties and qualities of minds form the shape of the skull. Phthisiology: The scientific study of tuberculosis.
Phycology: The study of algae. Physical Science: The study of natural laws and processes other than those peculiar to living matters, as in physics, chemistry and astronomy.
Physics: The study of the properties of matter.
Physiography: The science of physical geography.
Physiology: The study of the functioning of the various organs of living beings.
Phytogeny: The science dealing with origin and growth of plants.
Planetology: The study of the planets of the Solar System.
Pomology: The science that deals with fruits and ruit growing.
Psychology: The study of human and animal behavior.
Radio Astronomy: The study of heavenly bodies by the reception and analysis of the radio frequency electromagnetic radiations which they emit or reflect.
Radiobiology: The branch of giogoy which deals with the effects ofradiationson living organisms.
Radiology: The study of X-rays and radioactivity. Rheology: The study of the deformation ad flow of matter.
Seismology: The study of earthquakes and the phenomena associated with it.
Selenology: The scientific study of moon, its nature, origin, movement, etc.
Sericulture: The scientific study of rising of silkworms for the production of raw silk. Sociology: The study of human society.
Spectroscopy: The study of matter and energy by the use of spectroscope.
Statistics: The collection and analysis of numerical data.
Tectonics: The study of structural features of earth’s crust. Teleology: The study of purpose in nature.
Telepathy: Communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception. Therapeutics: The science and art of healing.
Topography: A special description of a part or region.
Toxicology: The study of poisons. Virology: The study viruses.
Zoogeography: The study of the geological distributions of animals.
Zoology: The study of animal life.
Zootaxy: Classification of animals.
BRANCHES OF SCIENCE
BRANCHES OF SCIENCE