7. Ken Ghariyal
10. N. Chambal
17. Sanjay Dubri
19. Son Ghariyal
25. V. Durgawati
In-situ conservation areas
o National Parks and Sancturies
Madhya Pradesh is a pioneer state in the national movement for conservation of flora and fauna. Conservation oriented legal proviso were made in the erstwhile Acts regulating hunting of game -birds and wild animals. In tune with the national consciousness towards conservation of flora and fauna the state government began setting up a network of in-situ conservation areas (national parks and sanctuaries) under the provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. There are 9 National Parks and 25 Sanctuaries spread over an area of 10,862 sq. km constituting 11.40% of the total forest area and 3.52% of the geographical area of the state. Efforts are under way to increase the Protected Area network to 15% of the forest or 5% of the geographical area as suggested by State Wildlife Board.
o Project Tiger Areas
Government of India/WWF launched “Project Tiger” in the year 1973. Kanha National Park was one of the first nine Protected Areas selected under Project Tiger in the country. At present, there are 5 Project Tiger areas in the state namely – Kanha, Panna, Bandhavgarh, Pench and Satpura. Madhya Pradesh is also known as the ‘Tiger State’ as it harbors 19% of India’s Tiger Population and 10% of the world’s tiger population.
2. Ex-Situ Conservation Area
Van Vihar National Park, Bhopal is the only Ex-Situ conservation area that has been given provisional recognition by the Central Zoo Authority (CZA). Though, this area has been notified as a National Park in order to provide adequate legal protection, it is being managed as a modern zoological park. Here the captive wild animals have been kept in near natural habitat setup.
1. Wildlife Wing
The wildlife wing is headed by the Chief Wildlife Warden and Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife) to oversee implementation of policies and programs for Wildlife conservation and management in the state.
To Conserve Wildlife and biodiversity through a network of protected areas and ex-situ conservation areas
To take up special measures for protection and conservation of highly endangered spp.
To curb poaching and illicit trade in wildlife and wildlife parts and articles
Sustainable development of forest fringe villages through participatory planning and implementation of eco-development in and around Protected Areas
To elicit public support for conservation of wildlife and wild habitats through conservation awareness programmes and ecotourism.
3. Strategy for Wildlife Conservation
Establishment of a Protected Area Network
Conservation of wild habitats and wildlife through establishment of a network of Protected Areas representative of bio-geographical zones has been the prime strategy of the government. Special efforts have been made towards conservation of highly endangered spp.
1 Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura national park are managed as project tiger areas.
2 Sardar pur sanctuary in Dhar and Sailana are managed for conservation of kharmor or lesser florican.
3 Ghatigaon sanctuary is managed for great Indian bustard or Son Chiriya.
4 National Chambal sanctuary is managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, River dolphin, smooth coated otter and a number of turtle species.
5 Ken -gharial and Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and mugger.
1. Management Planning
For scientific management of PAs, Management Plans have been prepared. In some areas, plans are under various stages of completion or revision. The basic difference between forest Working Plan and Protected Area Management in India lies in their objectives. While working plan is based on the principle of sustainable harvesting of forest resources and increasing productivity of forests, a PA Management Plan includes prescriptions for non-consumptive management of crucial habitat units such as –Food, Water and Cover and aims at maintaining diversity of species and habitats in order to maintain ecological processes and functions Management Interventions
• Ameliorative and Compensatory Management
Wildlife management includes both ameliorative and compensatory management. Certain important aspects of wildlife management are:
Improvement of habitat that includes augmenting water sources, water regime development, eradication of weeds, and development and restoration of grasslands
Development of communication and protection infrastructure,
Patrolling and anti-poaching activities,
Research and monitoring,
Mitigation of man-animal conflicts,
Innoculation of domestic cattle in and around PAs against contagious diseases.
visitor-use management (tourism) and interpretation.
Maintenance of roads, check-barriers, patrolling camps, buildings, watch towers, wireless network, water sources, vehicles etc are part of the day to day management activity.
Ecodevelopment means ‘development’ that is ecologically, socially and economically sustainable. It is initiated through site-specific village level planning by villagers themselves to achieve sustainable development of village resources, alternatives to fuel, fodder and timber and schemes to provide job alternatives to individuals and families in order to eradicate forest dependent livelihood patterns and ensure people’s active participation in protection of PA resources. The ecodevelopment activities are being executed through participatory management since 1992-93.
Till 1995, only the central government has been funding the ecodevelopment programmes in the villages around PAs. This programme was strengthened by the international funding through the MP Forestry Project ( a World Bank Aided project) and India Ecodevelopment Project (a World Bank And Global Environmental Trust aided project). About 700 ecodevelopment committees have been constituted in and around protected areas in M.P.At present ecodevelopment activities are being carried out with 100%financial assistance from the central government under the Project Tiger Scheme and Development of National Parks and Sanctuaries Scheme.
• Voluntary Village Relocation Activity
In order to safeguard the precious gene pool of flora and fauna, biotic interference from the existing village needs to be removed. Village relocation from remote forest areas also benefits the villagers as they get an opportunity to reap the benefits of mainstream development at the relocation site.
Village relocation programme is being implemented in some PAs where people have agreed for relocation to some suitable site outside the PA. GoI is funding the Village Relocation Scheme. Respective Collectors of the district are carrying out the settlement process under the Wildlife (Protection Act) and the PA managers are doing the relocation work. As a matter of policy, no forced relocation is permitted. The whole process of relocation is totally participatory. No village is to be relocated if the inhabitants are unwilling to move. As per norms made by Government of India, an amount of Rs. 1 lakh is spent on the relocation of each family. Government of India has been urged to revise the village relocation-funding norm from Rs 1 Lakh to at least Rs 2 lakh per family. The works include development of land at the relocation site, development of potable as well as irrigation water facility, roads and housing, pasture and fuel-wood plantation, transportation of household goods to the site of relocation etc.
Status of relocation of Villages from PAs
Protected Area No. of Villages inside at the beginning No. of Relocated Villages Relocation still in Progress Relocation
Panna 16 0 3 8 2
Madhav 15 0 0 1 1
Satpura 38 26 0 1 12
Bandhavgarh 3 3 0 0 4
Kanha 0 45 27 0 1
Kuno 24 0 24 12 (out of 24) 0
Pench 0 0 2 0 0
Sanjay 18 0 1
Compensation for damage caused by wild animals
The State Government provides compensation for the loss of human life by wild animals except snake and monitor lizard (guhera). A compensation of Rs 1,00,000 is paid to the successor of the deceased person in addition to the expenses incurred on medical treatment, and on being injured by wild animals compensation up to Rs 20,000 is paid towards treatment. In case of permanent disability, compensation up to Rs. 75,000 is paid to the injured person in addition to the expenses incurred on medical treatment. In case of loss of domestic cattle, compensation is paid as per the Book of Revenue Circular. To facilitate expeditious payment of compensation in case of loss of human life to people Range Officers is authorized to investigate and make payment within a timeframe. Immediate relief in the form of an amount of Rs. 5,000 in case of human loss and Rs. 1,000 in case of an injury, will be provide to the aggrieved family or the person, as the case may be with in 48 hours after such information is received in the office of Divisional Forest Officer or Range Officer. The amount of immediate relief would be adjusted in the total amount to be paid to the aggrieved person of family.
In revenue areas within 5 Km periphery from the forest area, the compensation for crop damage by wild animals is also paid as per the Book of Revenue Circular. The investigation and assessment of crop damage is done by the Revenue Department. The concerned Divisional Forest Officer makes the payment after he receives the order of payment of compensation from the Revenue Department. In case of crop damage, the aggrieved person should inform the nearest revenue officer within 24 hours about the damage to the crop by wild animal.
• Monitoring — Population Estimation of wild animals-
In all the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries and also territorial divisions, population estimation of major herbivorous and carnivorous wild animals is done annually. As per the population estimates of 2003, there are 712 tigers and 1,090 Panthers in the State. The Forest Department solicits the voluntary participation of college students and NGOs in training and actual estimation work in the field. Annual Tiger/Panther and Wild Animal Population Estimation Technical and Administrative Manual, incorporating project tiger guidelines was issued by the Chief Wild Life Warden of the state wherein the entire procedure and techniques of wild animal population estimation are codified.
In 2005 the Central Government initiated Nationwide Population estimation exercise based on an entirely new methodology developed by WII, Dehradun. The exercise began in December2005 and a series of trainings were organised in all the PAs and Forest Divisions of M.P followed by a massive data collection and February 2006. The work related to compilation of data is complete and the data have been sent to WII for analysis.
• Training of personnel and members of Eco development Committees
The Deputy Conservators and Astt. Conservators are trained in Wildlife Management, a 9 month PG Diploma course at Wildlife Institute of India(WII), Dehradun. The WII organises a Certificate course for Range Officers. For training of Guards, the Forest Department has established a Biodiversity Training Centre at Bandhavgarh National Park. Since October, 1998 a new 6- month curriculum, designed to impart competence based training, is being implemented. Several short-term modules are also conducted for field personnel at various levels of hierarchy. Motivational and skill trainings and study tours are conducted by the PAs for members of EDCs.
1. Advisory Bodies for Management and conservation of Wildlife and Biodiversity
• State Board for Wildlife
The State Government has constituted the State Wildlife Advisory Board renamed State Board for Wildlife as provided in Section-6 of the Wildlife(Protection) amendment Act,2002. This is a statutory body under Wildlife (protection) Act,1972. The Board meets twice yearly to advise the State Government on wildlife conservation matters. The Hon’ble Chief minister of Madhya Pradesh is the Chairperson of the Board and Hon’ble Forest minister is the Vice Chairperson, the Chief Wildlife Warden, M.P. is the member secretary.
• Funding Mechanism
• State and Central Schemes
The GoI provides Central Assistance for wildlife habitat improvement, protection from fire and destruction, poaching control measures, and development of infrastructure such as roads and buildings and establishment of wireless network in all the 34 Protected Areas of the State under following schemes-
S.No. Scheme Level of Assistance
1. Project Tiger 100% assistance from GOI For non recurring works and 50% for works of recurring nature
2. Development of Parks and Sanctuaries For non recurring works 100% assistance from GOI and 50% for works of recurring nature only for national parks.
3. Central Zoo Authority (for Van Vihar National Park Captive-Animal Management). For non recurring works 100% assistance from GOI and 50% for works of recurring nature
• Two earlier Schemes – ‘The Ecodevelopment Shceme’ and the ‘Beneficiary oriented Tribal Development schemes’ for relocation of Villages have been merged with the Project Tiger and Development of Parks and Sanctuaries Schemes since 1999.
Recurring annual expenditure and Establishment of all the PA’s is met from state budget under two head (1) Non-plan (2) Plan. Average allotments under each head per annum have been 1200 lakhs and 1300 lakhs respectively till 2002-03. Since 2003 the central government has enhanced allocation under central schemes. At present the state receives around Rs 1600-1700 lakhs as central assistance for protected areas. Including the central assistance and non-plan allocation ( of which around 60 % is spent on salaries) on an average, the Wildlife wing in the State gets an allotment to the tune of 3400 lakhs per annum .This leaves a deficit of Rs. 3300 lakhs per annum.
• Externally aided projects
MP Forestry Project
The World Bank aided MP Forestry project(1995-2000) had a strong component ofbiodiversity conservation. Under this component, 24 priority Protected Areas were selected for improving their management through scientific management plans, habitat improvement, staff training, provision of enhanced protection infrastructure, and research and monitoring. At present, there are 718 Eco-development Committees functioning in villages in and around Protected Areas.
India Eco-development Project
The Global Environment Facility (Trust) and the World Bank fund India Eco-development Project. This project has been initiated in 7 selected Project Tiger areas in the country. Pench Project Tiger area in Seoni district of M.P. is one of them. Improved PA management and Eco-development in 99 villages within the buffer zone of the Tiger reserve are two major objectives. The total outlay of this five year project is Rs. 25.45 crores. The Central Government provided funds to the State Government under the 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme- Eco-development around Protected Areas. The project was launched in 1996 and culminated in June2004.
Project under preparation phase
Biodiversity Conservation and Rural Livelihood Improvement Project
The Government of India has launched a project with a Credit from International Development Association (IDA) and a Grant from the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The project named – “Biodiversity Conservation and Rural Livelihood Improvement Project” will be implemented in 6 selected landscapes of the Country. One of the selected landscapes is the – Satpura Landscape, which includes Satpura Tiger Reserve and parts of adjoining territorial forest division of Hoshangabad, west Chhindwara, and north Betul (Rampur Bhatodi forest managed by M.P. Forest Corporation) in Madhya Pradesh. The total project area will be 2974.50 sq. kms.
In December 2005, Government of India has appointed a consultant to prepare a project document for this project. The project document is under preparation.
Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project at Kuno-Palpur Sanctuary of Madhya Pradesh
The last of the Asiatic lions are now confined in a small sized protected area, the Gir National Park in Gujarat. The concern towards rapid decline in Asiatic lion population, largely attributed to the fragmentation and destruction of its original extensive range of distribution through out the Indian peninsula, led to a search of a second home for lions. The Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun carried out a survey in 1993-94 and finally recommended the Kuno – Palpur Sanctuary and its adjoining forests in Sheopur district as the best suited second home for lions. It would be interesting to note that the last lion in Central India was shot in a forest belt near Kuno in 1873.
A lion reintroduction project is now on in the Kuno-Palpur sanctuary totally supported by funds from the Central Government. The Project is for Twenty years.
The work started in1996-97.The Government of India is funding this project under three existing Centrally Sponsored Schemes- Development of National Parks and Sanctuaries, Ecodevelopment around Protected Areas and the Beneficiary Oriented Scheme for Tribal Development. All 24 villages have been resettled at the relocation site. Relocation work is under progress. The total number of families to be covered under the relocation plan is 1545.
Management actions for minimizing biotic pressures, restoration of habitat, water conservation, enhancement of prey-base and strict protection have already been initiated. The Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun has conducted the prey-base assessment in January-February, 2005. The site is ready to receive the lions. The Government of Madhya Pradesh has urged the Central Government to expedite transfer of a pride of lions from Gujarat at the earliest.
Establishment of Development Fund
Government of Madhya Pradesh passed an order in 1997 enabling all National Parks and Sanctuaries to directly utilize the receipts from wildlife tourism for development of the Protected Areas. Now, each PA has its own development fund, which can be used for such development works for which funds are not readily available under the normal budget, after getting necessary approval for incurring designated expenditure from a State Level Committee;
Establishment of a Wildlife Health Monitoring, Disease Diagnostic and Research Cell, Jabalpur.
To make a beginning towards creating a wild animal health care facility, the MP Forest department has established a Wildlife Health Monitoring, Disease Diagnostic and Research Cell at Veterinary College Jabalpur in collaboration with the JNU Agriculture University. Equipments worth Rs. 62 lakhs have been provided to this cell under the MP Forestry Project. The objectives of the Cell are as follows:
To evolve a state-wide scenario of diseases of wildlife, particularly of highly endangered Sp. like tiger and hard-ground barasingha.
To provide technical training to protected area staff in various aspects of wildlife health monitoring and management chemical restraint, autopsy, collection and presentation of body parts of dead animals for lab analysis etc.
To provide disease diagnostic facilities and services during emergency to PAs, including identification of dead animals from body parts seized in poaching cases.
To create a database on various parameters related to wild animal health that will help in assessing the health status of wild animals based on hematological and biochemical studies.
To study the inter-relationship of wild and domestic animal diseases to evolve strategy for prophylactic measures and control methods.
To evolve a treatment plan for diseases of endangered wild animals in ex-situ conservation areas.
To develop wildlife forensic facilities
Conservation of Biodiversity in forests outside the PA network
The biodiversity conservation concerns of the state cannot be fully satisfied through managing the PAs only that cover about 11.40 percent of the total forest area. The remaining 89% of the forest area is rich repository of biodiversity and therefore biodiversity conservation concerns must be included in the management of territorial forest areas. This led to addition of a chapter on inclusion of biodiversity conservation principles in the management of forests, to the book of guidelines for Working Plan Preparation. In 2006 the WII, Dehradun has published latest guidelines for preparation of wildlife management plans in managed forest areas; this book has been sent to all the field units.
Establishment of Tiger Cell
Increased incidence of poaching of wild animals, especially of highly endangered species like tiger, all over the country is attributed mainly to the high value fetched by the skin, bones and other body parts of these animals in the international market. International gangs of poacher including the drug mafia are involved in the illicit trade in endangered wildlife. As M.P. has 19% of India’s and 10% of world’s tiger population as well as other vulnerable fauna and flora, the state has the accentuated responsibility to provide the best protection to tigers. In order to carry out this responsibility the Police and the Forest departments jointly constituted a ” Tiger Cell ” in 1994. The major objectives of this Cell are
to curb illicit trade in endangered species with special emphasis on tiger.
networking with national and international agencies involved in eradication of such illicit trade.
prepare a database of wildlife related crimes as well as criminals and using it for apprehending and prosecuting offenders
interact and co-ordinate with the authorities in the abutting states in order to evolve and follow a common strategy and also to seek their help in intelligence gathering and arrest of fugitive offenders.
The joint efforts of the police and forest personnel have yielded positive results. The Tiger Cell meets regularly to take account of the progress as well as the shortcomings in its efforts.
Establishment of Wildlife Intelligence Bureaus/ Anti-Poaching Squads
The rising international trade in Wildlife and Wildlife articles has adversely impacted upon the fauna of the State. The involvement of drug traffickers and other international racketeers has aggravated the situation. In order to further strengthen the protection machinery, the State government has now initiated the process of establishing Wildlife Anti-poaching Squads (Intelligence Bureaus in 6 highly sensitive areas)-namely Bhopal, Jabalpur, Satna, Itarsi, Sagar and Seoni. The mission of these bureaus is to collect and collate the intelligence regarding the wildlife crime and to help the field administration in preventing the wildlife offences from happening all together. A detailed work plan enlisting the methodology and the role and the responsibilities of the bureaus has been prepared. Assistant Conservators of Forests, who will be heading these bureaus, have been posted at Jabalpur and Itarsi. Strengthening of these intelligence bureaus will take place soon. Establishment of these bureaus is helping the field staff in a greater way in combating wildlife crime.
Constitution of Tiger Foundation Society
Madhya Pradesh, with the highest tiger population, has the national as well as global responsibility to save the tiger and its habitat. As this responsibility cannot be shouldered by the state alone, people from all walks of life must join hands to protect the tiger and its habitats for the long-term survival of human beings and other life-forms.
The Madhya Pradesh government has, therefore, pioneered a novel scheme to secure support and help from public and organizations outside the government through formation of an independent organization – ‘ Madhya Pradesh Tiger Foundation Society’, registered on January 15, 1997. The society has obtained Foreign Currently Regulation Act(FCRA) clearance and is authorised to receive donation from outside the country.
The role and functions of the Society are:
Provide protection to threatened and endangered species (with added emphasis on tiger conservation)
Provide help to the State Government and people in their effort to protect tiger habitats against fragmentation and destruction.
Provide support to the state government to control poaching of wild animals
To provide help in controlling illicit trade in body parts of tigers and products made out of body parts.
To provide help in protection of tiger habitats and prey-base of tiger.
To make general public aware of the need for conserving biodiversity and elicit their support for conservation of biodiversity. To seek help of mass media in achieving this objective.
To reward those individuals (including forest department personnel) and institutions, organizations who have made special effort towards protection of tiger.
To strengthen infrastructure required for protection of tigers in their habitats.
To establish a data-bank necessary for tiger conservation in the office of the Chief Wildlife Warden, M.P. who is the secretary of this organization, and also to help development of a network of such data-bank.
To take other measures through which conservation of tiger and other wildlife can be strengthened.
Madhya Pradesh Tiger Foundation Society is a non-profit making organization working towards conservation of wildlife and their habitats (with special emphasis on tiger).